Publications

Publications and Presentations: 2016

Plontke SK, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, Salt AN Intracochlear drug injections through the round window membrane: Measures to improve drug retention. Audiol Neurootol. 2016;21:72-79.

Hirose K, Hartsock J, Salt A Cochlear inflammation and the dynamic blood-perilymph barrier. 39th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2016, p132.

Lichtenhan J, Duncan R, Salt A Direct Administration of 2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin into Intact Cochleae: Effects on Objective Auditory Measurements. Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2016, p210.

Salt A, Hartsock J, Smyth D, Verhoeven K. Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Delivered by a Cochlear Implant with Cannula in Guinea Pigs. Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2016, p212.

Liebau A, Pogorzelski O, Salt A, Plontke S. Hearing changes after intratympanically applied steroids for therapy of sudden hearing loss: A metaanalysis using mathematical simulations of drug delivery protocols. Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2016, p479.


Publications and Presentations: 2015

Salt AN, Gill RM, Hartsock JJ. Perilymph Kinetics of FITC-Dextran Reveals Homeostasis Dominated by the Cochlear Aqueduct and Cerebrospinal Fluid. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2015;16:357-371.

Lichtenhan J, Dornhoffer J, Kennedy K, Salt A. Spatial Irregularities of Compound Action Potential Origination in Individual Cochleae. 39th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2015, p75.

Hirose K, Hartsock J, Salt A. The Blood-Labyrinth Barrier and its Influence on Endocochlear Potential. 39th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2015, p346.

Salt AN. Inner Ear Pharmacokinetics of Locally-Applied Gentamicin. Joint Meeting of the Midwest Auditory Research Conference and the Midwest Auditory Neuroscience Symposium. July 2015 Creighton University Omaha, Nebraska

Smyth D, Salt A, Kirk J, Wise A, Hartsock J. Drug delivery to the implanted cochlea – a research system. Inner Ear Biology. Rome Italy Sept 2015.

Salt A.N., Kraus F.B., King E.B., Plontke S.K. Gentamicin Distribution in the Ear Following Local Applications. 7th International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Disorders Rome Italy October 2015.

Salt A, Hartsock J, Gill R, Kraus F, King E, Plontke S. Gentamicin Distribution in the Ear Following Local Applications. 39th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2016, p78.


Publications and Presentations: 2014

Hirose K, Hartsock JJ, Johnson S, Santi P, Salt AN. Systemic lipopolysaccharide compromises the blood-labyrinth barrier and increases entry of serum fluorescein into the perilymph. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2014 15:707-719.

Plontke SK, Glien A, Rahne T, Mäder K, Salt AN. Controlled release dexamethasone implants in the round window niche for salvage treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Otol Neurotol. 2014 Aug;35(7):1168-71.

Salt AN, Lichtenhan JT How Does Wind Turbine Noise Affect People? Acoustics. Today 10, 20 (2014);

Eckhard, A, Müller M, Salt, A, Smolders, J. Rask-Andersen H, Löwenheim H. Water permeability coefficients of the mammalian cochlear duct: Functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier. Pflugers Arch. 2014; 466:1963-1985.

Lichtenhan JT, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, Guinan JJ Jr, Salt AN.The auditory nerve overlapped waveform (ANOW) originates in the cochlear apex. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2014 Jun;15(3):395-411.

Salt AN, Hartsock J, Gill R; Piu F, Plontke S Manipulations of Dexamethasone Kinetics in Perilymph. 37th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2014 p 467.

Liebau A., Salt A, Pogorzelski O., Plontke S. Recovery of Hearing After Local Glucocorticoid Therapy of Sudden Sensorial Hearing Loss – a Meta-Analysis by Mathematical Simulations of Clinical Protocols. 37th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2014, p468.

Hirose K, Hartsock J, Johnson S, Santi P, Salt A Systemic Endotoxin Enhances Entry of Fluorescein Into Perilymph Through Compromise of the Blood-Labyrinth Barrier. 37th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2014, p503.

Salt, AN, Ménière’s Disease and Local Drug Delivery Pharmacokinetics. (Invited Speaker) Glaxo SmithKline Auditory Translational Workshop at ARO, San Diego, Feb 2014

Salt AN. Pharmacokinetics of the Inner Ear with Locally Applied Drugs. (Invited presentation, Special Session: Ear Drug Delivery Systems). American Auditory Society, Scottsdale AZ, March 6-8th, 2014.


Publications and Presentations: 2013

Hahn H, Salt AN, Schumacher U, Plontke SK Gentamicin concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following systemic applications Audiol Neurootol. 2013;18(6):383-91.

King EB, Salt AN, Kel GE, Eastwood HT, O'Leary SJ. Gentamicin administration on the stapes footplate causes greater hearing loss and vestibulotoxicity than round window administration in guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2013 304:159-66.

King EB, O’Leary SJ, Hartsock JJ, Salt AN. Influence of Cochleostomy and Cochlear Implant Insertion on Drug Gradients following Intratympanic Application in Guinea Pigs. Audiol Neurootol. 2013; 18:307-316.

Salt AN, Lichtenhan JT, Gill RM, Hartsock JJ. Large endolymphatic potentials from low-frequency and infrasonic tones in the guinea pig. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013 133 :1561-1571. Salt AN. Manipulations of the cochlea and measurement of functional status 49th Workshop on Inner Ear Biology, Tubingen, Sept 2012.

Lichtenhan J, Hartsock J, Guinan J, Salt A Gross Neural Responses Shown to be from the Cochlear Apex by Ototoxic Injections 36th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2013.

Salt AN, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM Pharmacokinetics of perilymph assessed with fluorescent markers. 36th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2013.

Salt AN, Lichtenhan JT Endolymphatic microphonics to low-frequency tones and noise, and their suppression by higher-frequency sounds: A study relevant to wind turbine noise. 36th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2013.

Jeffery T. Lichtenhan & Alec N. Salt Amplitude Modulation Of Audible Sounds By Non-Audible Sounds: Understanding The Effects Of Wind-Turbine Noise. Proceedings of JASA 2013

Salt AN, Plontke SK. Corticosteroid and gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the inner ear. Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of the International Federation of Otorhinolaryngeological Societies, Seoul, Korea June 2013

Salt AN, Plontke SK. Technical Challenges in the delivery of corticosteroids to the inner ear. Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of the International Federation of Otorhinolaryngeological Societies, Seoul, Korea June 2013

O’Leary, S, King E, Salt, A, Eastwood, H, Kel, G. New concepts in hearing protection during otological surgery and for inner ear disease. Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of the International Federation of Otorhinolaryngeological Societies, Seoul, Korea June 2013

Salt A, Wagner N, Laurell G, Bagger-Sjoback D, Charabi S, Tos M, Thomsen J, Caye-Thomasen P. Controlling ototoxicity in intratympanic treatments of Meniere’s disease – evidence from a computer model, and animal model and clinical material. Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of the International Federation of Otorhinolaryngeological Societies, Seoul, Korea June 2013.

Plontke SK, Salt AN. Principles and practice of local drug delivery to the inner ear and therapy of inner ear disorders by intratympanic drug application. Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of the International Federation of Otorhinolaryngeological Societies, Seoul, Korea June 2013.

Salt AN Technical Challenges In Local Delivery Of Drugs To The Inner Ear. 3rd Conference on Innovation in Drug Delivery: Advances in Local Drug Delivery. September, 2013, Pisa, Italy

King EB, Hartsock JJ, O’Leary SJ, Salt AN. Influence of cochleostomy and implant insertion on drug gradients following intratympanic application in guinea pigs. Inner Ear Biology Workshop, Madrid, Sept 2013

King EB, Salt AN, Eastwood HE, Kel G, Hartsock JJ, O’Leary SJ Gentamicin administration on the stapes footplate. Neuro-Otology Society of Australia, 23rd Annual Clinical and Scientific Meeting October 2013, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne


Publications and Presentations: 2012

Salt AN, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, Piu F, Plontke SK. Perilymph pharmacokinetics of markers and dexamethasone applied and sampled at the lateral semi-circular canal. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2012 13(6): 771–783.

Guinan JJ Jr, Salt A, Cheatham MA. Progress in Cochlear Physiology after Békésy. Hearing Research 2012 293:12-20.

Hahn H, Salt AN, Beigner, T, Kammerer B, Delabar U, Hartsock J, Plontke SK. Dexamethasone levels and base to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following intracochlear delivery in the guinea pig Otol Neurotol. 33:660-665, 2012.

Salt AN, King EB, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, O'Leary SJ. Marker entry into vestibular perilymph via the stapes following applications to the round window niche of guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2012 283:14-23.

Salt AN, Gill RM Detailed anatomy of the inner ear as the basis for modeling drug distribution in guinea pigs and humans. 35th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2012.

Salt AN, Piu, F, Hartsock, JJ, Gill RM, Plontke SK. Dexamethasone pharmacokinetics in the inner ear assessed by injection and sampling at the lateral semi-circular canal. 35th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2012.

Salt AN, Miller C, Verhoeven, K Drug Elution from Cochlear Implants: Feasibility Based on Drug Levels Estimated for the Human Cochlea. 35th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, San Diego, Feb 2012.

Salt AN, Plontke SK Corticosteroid pharmacokinetics in the inner ear. Prosper Meniere Society, Austria 2012.

Plontke SK, Hartsock JJ, Salt AN. Leakage following drug injections through the round window membrane: Hydrostasis and other factors. Prosper Meniere Society, Austria 2012.

Salt AN, Miller C, Verhoeven K. Dosage design for an initial investigation into the benefit of intra-cochlear delivery of dexamethasone from a drug-eluting cochlear implant. Cochlear Implant 2012, Baltimore.

Salt AN, Lichtenhan, JT. Perception-based protection from low-frequency sounds may not be enough. Proceedings of InterNoise 2012, New York, 2012.


Publications and Presentations: 2011

Salt AN, Hartsock JJ, Plontke SK, LeBel C, Piu F. Distribution of dexamethasone and preservation of inner ear function following intratympanic delivery of a gel-based formulation. Audiology & Neurotology 2011; 16:323-335.

Salt AN, Kaltenbach JA. Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 31, 296-302, 2011

King EB, Salt AN, Eastwood HT, Gavrilescu M, O’Leary SJ. Direct entry of gadolinium into the vestibule following intratympanic applications in guinea pigs and the influence of cochlear implantation. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011 12:741-751. PMCID: PMC3214238

Salt AN, King EB, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, O'Leary SJ. Marker entry into vestibular perilymph via the stapes following applications to the round window niche of guinea pigs. Hear Res. 2012 283:14-23. PMC3277668

Lichtenhan JT, Brown DJ, McLean WA, Chertoff ME, Salt AN. A source of cochlear distortion and its utility for differential diagnosis of sensory-neural hearing loss. Audiology Today Nov/Dec Issue 2011

Salt AN. Does the infrasound from wind turbines affect the inner ear? 34th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2011.

Hartsock J, Thomas E, Bretan M, Gill R, O’Leary S, Salt AN Substances Enter Perilymph Near the Stapes as well as through the Round Window Membrane following Intratympanic Applications in Guinea Pigs. 34th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2011.

Salt AN, Hartsock J, Bretan M, Gill R. Evaluation of a Ten-Compartment Computer Model of the Inner Ear Fluid Spaces. 34th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2011.

Thomas EB, Salt AN, Eastwood HT, Gavrilescu M, Wright D, O’Leary SJ. Direct entry of Gd-DTPA into the vestibule following intratympanic applications in guinea pigs and the influence of cochlear implantation. 34th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, Feb 2011.

Salt AN, LichtenhanJT. Responses of the Inner Ear to Infrasound. Proceedings of the Fourth International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise, Rome Italy April 2011


Publications and Presentations: 2010

Salt AN, Hartsock JJ, Plontke SK, LeBel C and Piu F. Distribution of dexamethasone and preservation of inner ear function following intratympanic delivery of a gel-based formulation. Audiology & Neurotology 2011; 16:323-335.

Salt AN, Plontke SK. Endolymphatic hydrops: pathophysiology and experimental models. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010;43:971-983.

Salt AN, Hullar TE. Responses of the Ear to Low Frequency Sounds, Infrasound and Wind Turbines. Hearing Research 2010; 268: 12-21.

Kakigi A, Salt AN, Takeda T. Effect of artificial endolymph injection into the cochlear duct on perilymph potassium. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2010: 71, 16-18.

Salt, AN. Infrasound: Your ears hear it but they don’t tell your brain. First International Symposium: The Global Wind Industry And Adverse Health Effects: Loss of Social Justice? Picton, Ontario, October 29-31, 2010

Salt AN. The Role of Mechanical Disturbances of the Organ of Corti in Hearing Sensitivity Changes of the Hydropic Ear. Sixth International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Disorders, Kyoto, Japan, November 2010

Brown DJ, Gibson WPR, Salt AN Objective Diagnosis of Endolymphatic Hydrops Using Biased Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. Sixth International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Disorders, Kyoto, Japan, November 2010.

Salt AN, Gill RM, Hartsock JJ. Infrasound-induced cochlear microphonics in scala media include a component from non hair-cell sources. 33rd Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Anaheim, CA, 2010.

Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, Salt AN. Sequential sampling of perilymph from the lateral semi-circular canal. 33rd Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Anaheim, CA, 2010.

Hahn H, Gill R, Schuhmacher U. Plontke SK, Salt AN. Apical-Basal Concentration Gradients of Gentamicin in Perilymph of Scala Tympani Following Systemic Applications 33rd Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Anaheim, CA, 2010.

Salt AN, Plontke SK. Low-Frequency Sensitivity of the Ear and Meniere’s disease. Prosper Meniere Society, Austria 2010.

Salt AN, Hartsock JJ. Cochlear drug gradients and functional changes with sustained intratympanic dexamethasone delivery. Prosper Meniere Society, Austria 2010.


Publications and Presentations: 2009

Salt AN, Brown DJ, Hartsock JJ, Plontke SK. Displacements of the organ of Corti by gel injections into the cochlear apex. Hear Res. 2009 250:63-75.

Brown DJ, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM, Henson H, Salt AN. Estimating the operating point of the cochlear transducer using low-frequency biased distortion products. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 125:2129-2145.

Salt AN, Plontke SK. Principles of local drug delivery to the inner ear. Audiol Neurootol. 2009; 14:350-360.

Mikulec AA, Plontke SK, Hartsock JJ, Salt AN Entry of substances into perilymph through the bone of the otic capsule following intratympanic applications in guinea pigs: Implications for local drug delivery in humans. Otology & Neurotology Otol Neurotol. 30:131-138, 2009

Salt AN. Opportunities and techniques for local drug delivery to the inner ear. COSM, 2009.

Hahn H, Biegner T, Kammerer B, Delabar U, Salt AN, Plontke SK. Persistence of dexamethasone drug levels and base to apex gradients in the perilymph of the scala tympani after single shot injections through the round window membrane. 32nd Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, 2009.

Salt AN Hartsock JJ. Perilymph pharmacokinetics in the guinea pig inner ear compared for local injections at different sites. 32nd Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, 2009

Brown DJ, Hartsock JJ, Plontke SK, Salt AN. Prolonged basilar membrane displacements during gel injections into the cochlear apex and increased sensitivity to infrasound following the injections. 32nd Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, 2009


Publications and Presentations: 2008

Mikulec AA, Hartsock JJ, Salt AN. Permeability of the round window membrane is influenced by the composition of applied drug solutions and by common surgical procedures. Otology and Neurotol 29:1020-1026, 2008.

Salt AN, Gill RM, Plontke SK. Dependence of Hearing Changes on the Dose of Intratympanically-Applied Gentamicin: A Metaanalysis Using Mathematical Simulations of Clinical Drug Delivery Protocols. Laryngoscope 118:1793-1800, 2008.

Plontke SK, Mikulec AA, Salt AN. Rapid clearance of methylprednisolone after intratympanic application in humans. (Letter to the Editor) Otology & Neurotology 2008

Plontke SK, Biegner T, Kammerer B, Delabar U, Salt AN. Dexamethasone concentration gradients along scala tympani after application to the round window membrane. Otology & Neurotology 29:401-406, 2008.

Salt AN. Technical Challenges of Delivering Substances to the Cochlea. Conference on Cell Replacement in the Inner Ear, Washington DC, 2008

Salt AN, Hartsock JJ, Gill RM Functional Changes Associated with "One-Shot" Intracochlear Injections through the Round Window Membrane. 31st Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2008.

Mikulec AA, Plontke SK, Hartsock JJ, Salt AN Drugs Enter the Perilymph of Guinea Pigs through the Bony Otic Capsule. 31st Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2008.

Siedow, N, Hering-Bertram M, Gill RM, Salt AN, Plontke SK. Development of a three-dimensional model for calculation of substance distribution in the inner ear after round window application based on a realistic geometry of the guinea pig inner ear. 31st Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2008.

Salt AN. Local Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear – Strategies and Patient Groups. Hearing Preservation Workshop VII, Kansas City, 2008.


Publications and Presentations: 2007

Salt, A.N., Sirjani, D.B., Hartsock, J.J., Gill, R.M., Plontke, S.K. Marker Retention in the Cochlea Following Injections through the Round Window Membrane. Hear Res. 2007;232:78-86.

Plontke, S.K., Siedow, N, Wegener, R., Zenner, H.-P., Salt, A.N. Cochlear pharmacokinetics with local inner ear drug delivery using a 3D finite element computer model Audiology & Neurootology 12:37-48, 2007 (17119332).

Plontke SK, Mynatt R, Gill RM., Salt AN. Concentration gradient along scala tympani following the local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane. Laryngoscope. 117:1191-1198, 2007.

Salt, A.N. The endolymphatic sinus is a possible detector of endolymph volume status. A response to Wit,HP, Hofman, R. "Does the endolymph sinus function as a one-way valve?" Hear. Res 224:117-118, 2007.

Harding GW, Bohne BA, Lee SC, Salt AN. Effect of infrasound on cochlear damage from exposure to a 4kHz octave band of noise. Hear Res. 225:128-138 2007 (17300889).

Harris, J.P., Salt, A.N. Meniere's Disease. In: Dallos P (Ed), Handbook of the Senses Academic press, 2007.

Salt A.N. Endolymph physiology in Meniere's disease. Workshop on Meniere's disease. 30th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2007.

Salt, A.N., Holden, T.A., Gill, R.M., Plontke, S.K. Modeling drug dispersion in the inner ear fluids: The importance of accurate 3D anatomical studies. Workshop on 3D imaging, modeling, reconstruction and analysis of the temporal bone and brain. 30th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2007.

Salt, A.N., Hartsock, J.J., Sirjani, D.B., Plontke, S.K. Perilymph pharmacokinetics following one-shot injections into the basal cochlear turn of guinea pigs. 30th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2007.

Plontke, S.K., Beigner, T. Kammerer, B., Salt, A.N. Dexamethasone concentration gradient along scala tympani of the guinea pig cochlea after round window drug administration. 30th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2007.

Mikulec, A.A., Salt, A.N. Factors influencing round window membrane permeability in guinea pigs. 30th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2007.

Salt, AN Cochlear fluids homeostasis and its relevance to drug delivery to the inner ear. Equilibrium Research. 2007: 66, 206 (abstract).


Publications and Presentations 2006

Mynatt, R., Hale, S.A., Gill, R.M., Plontke, S.K.R., Salt, A.N. Demonstration of a longitudinal concentration gradient along scala tympani by sequential sampling of perilymph from the cochlear apex. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 7:182-193, 2006. (16718612)

Hahn, H., Kemmerer, B., DiMauro, A., Salt, A.N., Plontke, S. Cochlear microdialysis for quantification of dexamethasone and fluorescein entry into scala tympani during round window administration. Hearing Research 212:236-244, 2006. (16442251

Salt, A.N., Hale S.A., Plontke, S.K.R. Perilymph Sampling from the Cochlear Apex: A Reliable Method to Obtain Higher Purity Perilymph Samples from Scala Tympani. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 153: 121-129, 2006 (16310856

Plontke, S.K., Salt, A.N. Simulation of Application Strategies for Local Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear. ORL 68:382-388, 2006. (17065834)

Mynatt, R., Plontke, S., Hale S., Gill, R. Salt, A.N. Sequential apical sampling from the cochlea as a method to quantify longitudinal drug gradients: Validation with an ionic marker. 29th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, February 2006.

Salt, A.N., Hale, S. Transducer operating point changes during endolymph volume manipulations detected by low-frequency biased f2-f1 acoustic emissions. 29th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, February 2006.

Salt, A.N., Gill, R., Voie, A., Saxon, G. 3D Representation of the guinea pig inner ear and the implications for modeling drug movements in the fluids. 29th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, February 2006.

Plontke S.,Mynatt, R. Hale, S., Salt, A.N. Gentamicin concentration gradient along scala tympani of the guinea pig cochlea after round window drug administration. 29th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, Baltimore, February 2006.

Salt, A.N. Entering the cochlea : the final frontier. University College London symposium on directions in hearing research. May 2006.

Salt A.N. Fluid distribution - Inner ear drug delivery. Hearing Preservation Workshop V, Research Triangle Park, NC., October 2006.


Publications and Presentations 2005

Salt, A.N. Phamacokinetics of drug entry into cochlear fluids. In: Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity: Mechanisms and Strategies in Prevention. Ed. Steyger. P. The Volta Review 105 (3), 277-298, 2005, Washington DC. ISSN 0042-8639

Bobbin, R.P. and Salt, A.N. ATP-g-S Shifts the Operating Point of Outer Hair Cell Transduction Toward Scala Tympani. Hear. Res. 205, 35-43, 2005

Salt, A.N. and Plontke, S.K.R. Local Inner ear drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. In: Hearing Research and Drug Discovery : Drug Discovery Today. 10:1299-1306, 2005

Plontke, S. and Salt, A. Pharmacokinetic Considerations of Local Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear by Round Window Application. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Homeostasis Disorders, 2005; David J. Lim, editor; House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, CA, publishers. ISBN 0-9776204-0-9

Salt, A.N. Low Frequency Pressure Changes may Participate in Endolymph Volume Regulation. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Homeostasis Disorders, 2005; David J. Lim, editor; House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, CA, publishers. ISBN 0-9776204-0-9.

Salt, A.N., Henson, H.E., Gill, R.M., Sirjani, D.B. Even-Order Distortion as an Indicator of Endolymphatic Hydrops. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Homeostasis Disorders, 2005; David J. Lim, editor; House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, CA, publishers. ISBN 0-9776204-0-9.

Kakigi, A., Salt, A.N., Takeda T. Effect of artificial endolymph injection into the cochlear duct on perilymph potassium. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Meniere’s Disease and Inner Ear Homeostasis Disorders, 2005; David J. Lim, editor; House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, CA, publishers. ISBN 0-9776204-0-9.

Garnham, C., Reetz, G., Jolly, C., Miller, J., Salt, A., Beal, F. Drug delivery to the cochlea after implantation: Consideration of the risk factors. Cochlear Implants International 6 (SUPPL. 1), pp. 12-14, 2005.

Salt, A.N., Mynatt, R.., Hale, S., Plontke, S.K. Scala tympani perilymph sampling from the cochlear apex. Inner Ear Biology Meeting, Tuebingen, Sept 2005

Salt, A.N. Mechanisms of endolymph homeostasis in the inner ear. COSM (Otologic Society) Boca Raton, FL, May 2005.

Salt, A. and Hale, S. Longitudinal Distribution of Drugs in Perilymph Assessed by Cochlear Action Potentials. 28th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, New Orleans, February 2005.

Salt, A. and Gill, R. Dependence of Distortion on Cochlear Transducer Characteristics. 28th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, New Orleans, February 2005.

Salt, A and Henson, H. Influence of Low Frequency Biasing on Distortion Generation by the Cochlea. 28th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, New Orleans, February 2005.

Plontke, S., Siedow, N., Salt, A.N., Zenner, H-P., Wegener, R. Further Development of the Three-dimensional Model of Substance Distribution in the Cochlea after Round Window Application. 28th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, New Orleans, February 2005.

Hahn, H., Kammerer, A., DiMauro, A., Zenner, H.-P., Salt, A.N., Plontke, S. The use of Microdialysis for Quantification of Dexamethasone and Flourescein Entry into Scala Tympani during Round Window Application. 28th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, New Orleans, February 2005.


Publications and Presentations 2004

Salt, A.N. Acute endolymphatic hydrops generated by exposure of the ear to non-traumatic low frequency tone. JARO 5, 203-214, 2004.

Salt, A.N and Rask-Andersen, H. Responses of the endolymphatic sac to perilymphatic manipulations: Evidence for the presence of a one-way valve. Hear. Res 191, 90-100, 2004.

Sirjani, D.B., Salt, A.N., Gill, R.M., Hale, S.A. The influence of transducer operating point on distortion generation in the cochlea. JASA 115 (3), 1219-1229, 2004.

Plontke, S, Siedow, N., Hahn, H., Wegener, R., Zenner, H.P., Salt, A.N. 1D-and 3D- computer simulation for planning and interpretation of pharmacokinetic studies in the inner ear after round window drug delivery. ALTEX. 21 Suppl 3:77-85, 2004 (article in German).

Salt, A.N., Rask-Andersen, H. Responses of the endolymphatic sac to perilymphatic pressure manipulations suggest the presence of a one-way valve. 27th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2004.

Salt, A.N., Hale, S.A. Evaluation of a novel method for sampling scala tympani perilymph by collecting fluid from the cochlear apex. 27th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2004.

Sirjani, D.B., Salt, A.N., Gill, R.M., Hale, S.A. Interpretation of distortion changes during endolymphatic manipulations by an analysis of transducer operating point. 27th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2004.

Rodger, C.S., Salt, A.N. Transducer operating point shifts account for post-onset distortion changes with low frequency tones. 27th Midwinter Research Meeting of the ARO, 2004.


Publications Prior to 2004

Plontke, S.K.R. and Salt, A.N. Quantitative interpretation of corticosteroid pharmacokinetics in inner ear fluids using computer simulations. Hearing Research 182, 34-42, 2003.

Salt, A.N., Kellner, C., Hale, S. Contamination of perilymph sampled from the basal cochlea turn with cerebrospinal fluid. Hearing Research 182, 24-33, 2003

Pettit, K., Henson, M.M., Henson, O.W.jr, Gewalt, S.L., Salt, A.N. Quantitative anatomy of the guinea pig endolymphatic sac. Hearing Research 174: 1-8, 2002.

Plontke, S.K.R., Wood, A.W., Salt, A.N. Analysis of gentamicin kinetics in fluids of the inner ear with round window administration. Otology and Neurotology 23: 967-974, 2002.

Ghiz, A.F., Salt, A.N., DeMott, J.E., Henson, M.M., Henson, O.W., jr., Gewalt, S.L. Quantitative anatomy of the round window and cochlear aqueduct in guinea pigs. Hearing Research. 162: 105-112, 2001.

Salt, A.N. and Ma, Y. Quantification of solute entry into cochlear perilymph through the round window membrane. Hearing Research 154, 88-97, 2001.

Salt, A.N., DeMott, J.E. Ionic and potential changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by endolymph volume changes. Hearing Research 149, 46-54, 2000

Rask-Andersen, H., Salt, A.N., DeMott, J.E. and Bagger-Sjoback, D. Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea. Hearing Research 138: 81-90, 1999.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E. Longitudinal endolymph movements and endocochlear potential changes induced by stimulation at infrasonic frequencies. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106: 847-856, 1999.

Thorne, M., Salt, A.N., DeMott, J.E., Henson, M.M., Henson, O.W. jr. And Gewalt, S.L. Cochlear fluid space dimensions for six species derived from reconstructions of 3-D magnetic resonance images. Laryngoscope 109: 1661-1668, 1999.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E. Longitudinal endolymph movements induced by perilymphatic injections. Hearing Research 123: 137-147, 1998

Brunschwig, A.S. and Salt, A.N. Fixation-induced shrinkage of Reissner's membrane and its potential influence in the assessment of endolymph volume. Hearing Research 114: 62-68, 1997.

Gill, S.S and Salt, A.N. Quantitative differences in endolymphatic calcium and endocochlear potential between pigmented and albino guinea pigs. Hearing Research 113: 191-197, 1997.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E. Longitudinal endolymph flow associated with acute volume increase in the cochlea. Hearing Research 107: 29-40, 1997

Salt, A.N., Henson, M.M., Gewalt, S.L., Keating, A.W., DeMott, J.E.and Henson, O.W.: Detection and quantification of endolymphatic hydrops in the guinea pig cochlea by magnetic resonance microscopy. Hearing Research 88: 79-86, 1995.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E.: Endolymph volume changes during osmotic dehydration measured by two marker techniques. Hearing Research 90: 12-23, 1995.

Salt, A.N., DeMott, J.E. and Kimura, R.S.: Comparison of histologically-measured endolymph cross-sectional area with that measured in vivo using an ionic volume marker. Annals of Otol-Rhinol-Laryngol. 104, 886-894, 1995.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.D.: Time course of endolymph volume increase in experimental hydrops measured in vivo with an ionic volume marker. Hearing Res. 74:165-172, 1994.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.D.: Endolymph calcium increases with time after surgical induction of hydrops in guinea-pigs. Hearing Res. 74:115-121, 1994.

Ito, Z., Kusakari, J., Salt, A.N.: Solute movement across the round window membrane in comparison with that across the blood labyrinth barrier. Jap. J. Otolaryngol. 95:1959-1967, 1993.

Inamura, N. and Salt, A.N.: Permeability changes of the blood-labyrinth barrier measured in vivo during experimental treatments. Hearing Res. 61:12-18, 1992.

Salt, A.N. and Ohyama, K.: Accumulation of potassium in scala vestibuli perilymph of the mammalian cochlea. Ann ORL 102:64-78, 1993.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.: Tetramethylammonium for in vivo marking of the cross-sectional area of the scala media in the guinea-pig cochlea. Archives Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 249:157-163, 1992.

Salt, A.N., Ohyama, K and Thalmann, R.: Radial communication between the perilymphatic scalae of the cochlea. II. Estimation by bolus injection of tracer into the sealed cochlea. Hearing Res. 56:37-43, 1991

Salt, A.N., Ohyama, K and Thalmann, R.: Radial communication between the perilymphatic scalae of the cochlea. I. Estimation by tracer perfusion. Hearing Res. 56:29-36, 1991

Salt, A.N., Inamura, N., Thalmann, R. and Vora, A.R.: Evaluation of procedures to reduce fluid flow in the fistulized guinea-pig cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol. 111:899-907, 1991

Salt, A.N. and Vora, A.R.: Calibration of ion selective microelectrodes for use with high levels of interfering ions. J. Neuroscience Methods 38:233-237, 1991

Salt, A.N. and Garcia, P.: Cochlear action potential tuning curves recorded with a derived response technique. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 88:1392-1402, 1990.

Salt, A.N. and Vora, A.R.: Cochlear threshold assessment using tone-derived action potentials. Audiology 29:135-145, 1990.

Salt, A.N., Inamura, N., Thalmann, R. and Vora, A.: Calcium gradients in inner ear endolymph. Am. J. Otol. 10:371-375, 1989.

Hara, A., Salt, A.N. and Thalmann, R.: Perilymph composition in scala tympani of the cochlea: Influence of cerebrospinal fluid. Hearing Res. 42:265-272, 1989.

Ohyama, K., Salt, A.N. and Thalmann, R.: Volume flow rate of perilymph in the guinea-pig cochlea. Hearing Res. 35:119-130, 1988.

Salt, A.N. and Thalmann, R.: Interpretation of endolymph flow results. Hearing Res. 33:279-281, 1988.

Salt, A.N. and Thalmann, R.: New concepts regarding the volume flow of endolymph and perilymph. Adv. Oto-Rhino-Laryngol. 37:11-17, 1987.

Salt, A.N., Melichar, I. and Thalmann, R.: Mechanisms of endocochlear potential generation by stria vascularis. Laryngoscope, 97:984-991, 1987.

Salt, A.N., Thalmann, R., Marcus, D.C. and Bohne, B.A.: Direct measurement of longitudinal endolymph flow rate in the guinea pig cochlea. Hearing Res. 23:141-151, 1986.

Salt, A.N. and Thornton, A.R.D.: The effects of stimulus rise-time and polarity on the brainstem responses. Scand. Audiol. 13:119-128, 1984.

Blunn, R.W., Salt, A.N. and Thornton, A.R.D.: Construction of a simple stimulus polarity indicator. Electroenceph. and Clin. Neurophysiol. 56:689-690, 1983.

Konishi, T. and Salt, A.N.: Electrochemical profile for potassium ions across the cochlear hair cell membranes of normal and noise-exposed guinea pigs. Hearing Res. 11:219-233, 1983.

Konishi, T., Salt, A.N. and Hamrick, P.E.: Effects of exposure to noise on the permeability to potassium of the endolymph/perilymph barrier. Acta Otolaryngol. 94:395-402, 1982.

Cook, R.O., Konishi, T., Salt, A.N., Hamm, C.W., Lebetkin, E.H. and Koo, J.: Brainstem evoked responses in guinea pig exposed to high noise levels in utero. Develop. Psychology, 15:95-104, 1982.

Salt, A.N. and Konishi, T.: Functional importance of sodium and potassium in the guinea pig cochlea studied with amiloride and tetraethylammonium. Jap. J. Physiol. 32:219-230, 1982.

Konishi, T., Salt, A.N. and Hamrick, P.E.: Effects of hypothermia on ionic movement in the guinea pig cochlea. Hearing Res. 4:265-278, 1981.

Salt, A.N., Konishi, T., Cook, R.O. and Akay, A.: Comparison between the effects of continuous and impact noise on guinea pig cochlear potentials. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 69:1746-1752, 1981.

Konishi, T. and Salt, A.N.: Permeability to potassium of the endolymph-perilymph barrier and its possible relation to hair cell function. Exp. Brain Res. 40:457-463, 1980.

Salt, A.N. and Konishi, T.: Effects of noise on cochlear potentials and endolymph potassium concentration recorded with potassium-selective electrodes. Hearing Res. 1:343-363, 1979.

Konishi, T., Salt, A.N. and Hamrick, P.E.: Effects of exposure to noise on ion movement in the guinea pig cochlea. Hearing Res. 1:325-342, 1979.

Salt, A.N. and Stopp, P.E.: The effect of cerebrospinal fluid pressure on perilymphatic flow in the opened cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol. 88:198-202, 1979.

Salt, A.N. and Stopp, P.E.: The effect of raising scala tympani potassium concentration on the tone-induced cochlear responses in the guinea pig. Exp. Brain Res. 36:87-98, 1979.


Chapters and Invited Papers Prior to 2004

Salt, A.N. Regulation of endolymphatic fluid volume. In: The vestibular labyrinth in health and disease. Eds. Highstein, S. and Goebel, J. Annals NY Academy of Science. 942: 306-312, 2001.

Salt, A.N. Simulation of methods for drug delivery to the cochlear fluids. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2002, 59:140-8.

Salt, A.N. Dynamics of the inner ear fluids. In: Jahn A.F. and Santos-Sacchi, J., Physiology of the Ear, Second Edition. Singular press, pp 333-356, 2001.

Rask-Anderson, H., Kinnefors, A., Salt, A., DeMott, J.E., Illing, R.B. Homeostatic mechanisms of the inner ear fluids. In: Meniere's Disease (Proceeding of th 4th International symposium on Meniere's disease, Paris, 1999) Eds Sterkers, O., Ferrary, E., Dauman, R., Sauvage, J.P., Tran Ba uy P. Kugler publications, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 59-73, 2000

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E. The role of endolymph flow in homeostasis. In: Meniere's Disease (Proceeding of the 4th International symposium on Meniere's disease, Paris, 1999). Eds. Sterkers, O., Ferrary, E., Dauman, R., Sauvage, J.p., Tran Ba Huy P. Kulger publications, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 41-45, 2000.

Salt, A.N. Fluid homeostasis in the inner ear. In: Meniere's Disease, Ed. Harris, J.P., Kugler Press, Netherlands, 1999, 169-174.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E. Physical Processes underlying homeostasis of cochlear endolymph. In: Intracranial and inner ear physiology and pathophysiology: Eds. Reid, A., , Marchbanks, R. and Ernst, A., Whurr publishers, London, 1998.

Salt, A.N.: Longitudinal fluid movements in the cochlea under normal and abnormal conditions. In: Intracranial and Intralabyrinthine fluids. Basic aspects and clinical applications Eds. Ernst, A., Marchbanks, R. and Samii, M., Springer Press, 1996, 23-30.

Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.E.: Small longitudinal movements of endolymph are induced by volume disturbances. In: Meniere's Disease: 16th Danavox Symposium, Eds. Vesterhauge, S., Katholm, M. and Mikines, P. Danavox press, 1995, 113-122.

Thalmann, R., Salt, A.N. and DeMott, J.: Endolymph volume regulation: Possible mechanisms. In: Ménière's Disease. Ed., J.B. Nadol, Kugler, Amsterdam, pp. 55-60, 1989.

Salt, A.N. and Thalmann, R.: Rate of longitudinal flow of cochlear endolymph. In: Ménière's Disease. Ed., J.B. Nadol, Kugler, Amsterdam, pp. 69-73, 1989.

Salt, A.N. and Thalmann, R.: Cochlear fluid dynamics. In: Physiology of the Ear. Eds., A.F. Jahn and J.R. Santos-Sacchi, Raven Press, New York, pp. 341-357, 1988.

Salt, A.N. and Konishi, T.: The cochlear fluids: endolymph and perilymph. In: Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. Eds. R. Altschuler et al., Raven Press, N.Y., pp. 109-122, 1986.

Salt, A.N. and Thornton, A.R.D.: The choice of stimulus polarity for brainstem responses in the clinic. In: Evoked Potentials II. Eds. R.H. Nodar and C. Barbar, Butterworth Press, Boston, pp. 203-215, 1984.

Konishi, T., Salt, A.N. and Kimura, R.S.: Electrophysiological studies of experimentally-induced endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pigs. In: Meniere's disease-pathogenesis and treatment. Eds. K-H. Vosteen et al., Georg Thieme Verlag, N.Y. pp.47-58, 1981.